Southern Dynasties in India : The sultans’ failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527) and the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1565). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states in 1527. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad, where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting.

Southern Dynasties in India :

Founded in 1336, the empire of Vijayanagar (named for its capital Vijayanagar, “City of Victory,” in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagar rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagar rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tunghabadhra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers’ capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses–initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese–and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler. Arabs and Portuguese competed for influence and control of west coast ports, and, in 1510, Goa passed into Portuguese possession.

The city of Vijayanagar itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. (However, the first Vijayanagar ruler–Harihara I–was a Hindu who converted to Islam and then reconverted to Hinduism for political expediency.) The temples sponsored no intellectual exchange with Islamic theologians because Muslims were generally assigned to an “impure” status and were thus excluded from entering temples. When the five rulers of what was once the Bahmani Sultanate combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagar in 1565, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot.

Southern Dynasties in India page

Funny signboards……enjoy !!!!

In a veterinarian’s waiting room: “Be back in 5 minutes. Sit! Stay!”

Door of a plastic surgeon’s office: “Hello. Can we pick your nose?”

A sign on the back shield of a car: DO YOU BELIEVE IN LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT OR SHOULD I DRIVE BY AGAIN?

On a Plumbers truck:  “We repair what your husband fixed.”

Pizza shop slogan: “7 days without pizza makes one weak.”

At a towing company: “We don’t charge an arm and a leg. We want tows.”

On a maternity room door:  “Push. Push. Push.”

At an optometrist’s office:  “If you don’t see what you’re looking for, you’ve come to the right place.”

In a restaurant window: “Don’t stand there and be hungry. Come on in and get fed up.”

In the front yard of a funeral home:
“Drive carefully. We’ll wait.”

On a California freeway:
Fine for Littering

In a Kansas City oculist’s office:
Broken lenses duplicated here

In a  barbershop:
During vacation of owner, a competent hair stylist will be here

At a  bookstore:
Rare, out-of-print, and nonexistent books

NOTICE IN A FIELD: The farmer allows walkers to cross the field for free, but the bull charges.

Seen at a Railway Station.
Aana free,  jaana free, Pakdhe gaye to khana free

Sign at a barber’s saloon in Delhi
We need your heads to run our business


Notice at a barber’s shop:
Haircut for Rs 15/- .  Children for Rs 10/-


Notice in the toilet
This urinal is out of order – Kindly use the floor below.

Sign in a restaurant:
All drinking water in this establishment has been personally passed by the manager

Seen on a bulletin board:
Sucess is relative.
More the success, more the relatives.


Sign on a famous beauty parlour window:
Don’t whistle at the girl going out from here.  She may be your Grandmother.

At restaurant-gas stations:
          "Eat here and get gas."



In a New Hampshire jewelry store:
          "Ears pierced while you wait."


In an New York restaurant"
          "Customers who consider our waitresses uncivil ought to see the       
           manager."


In a Michigan restaurant:
          "The early bird gets the worm!"
          "Special shoppers' luncheon before 11:00 AM."



On a long-established New Mexico dry cleaning store:
          "Thirty-eight years on the same spot."


In a Los Angeles dance hall:
          "Good clean dancing every night but Sunday."


On a movie theater:
          "Children's matinee today. Adults not admitted unless with child."


In a Florida maternity ward:
          "No children allowed!"


In a New York drugstore:
          "We dispense with accuracy."



In the office of a loan company:
          "Ask about our plans for owning your home."


In a New York medical building:
          "Mental health prevention center."


In a toy department:
          "Five Santa Clauses -- no waiting."


On a Maine shop:
          "Our motto is to give our customers the lowest possible prices and    
           workmanship.



In the window of a Kentucky appliance store:
          "Don't kill your wife.  Let our washing machines do the dirty work."



On a window of a New Hampshire burger restaurant:
          "Yes, we are open.  Sorry for the inconvenience."


In a clothing store:
          "Wonderful bargains for men with 16 and 17 necks."


In a Tacoma, Washington men's clothing store:
          "15 men's wool suits - $10.00 - They won't last an hour!"


On an Indiana shopping mall marquee:
          "Archery tournament.  Ears pierced."



Outside a country shop:
          "We buy junk and sell antiques."


On a North Carolina highway:
          "EAT"
          "300 FEET"


In the window of an Oregon general store:
          "Why go elsewhere to be cheated, when you can come here?"



In a Massachusettes parking area reserved for birdwatchers:
          "Parking for birds only."


In front of a New Hampshire store:
          "Endurable floors."


On a radiator repair garage:
          "Best place too take a leak."



In a Pennsylvania cemetery:
         "Persons are prohibited from picking flowers from any but their own
           graves."


On a roller coaster:
          "Watch your head."


On the grounds of a private school:
          "No trespassing without permission."

In a library:
          "Blotter paper will no longer be available until the public stops
           taking it away.


On a Tennessee highway:
           "Take Notice:  When this sign is under water the road is impasable."


Similarily in a New Hampshire car wash:
          "If you can't read this, it's time to wash your car."

“Signs Found in the Kitchen”
So this isn’t Home Sweet Home …  Adjust!
Ring bell for maid service.  If no answer, do it yourself!

I clean house every other day.  Today is the other day.

If you write in the dust, please don’t date it!

I would cook dinner but I can’t find the can opener!

My house was clean last week, too bad you missed it!

I came, I saw, I decided to order take out.

If you don’t like my standards of cooking …lower your standards.
Although you’ll find our house a mess, Come in, sit down, converse. It doesn’t always look like this: Some days it’s even worse.

A balanced diet is a cookie in each hand!
Thou shalt not weigh more than thy refrigerator.
Countless number of people have eaten in this kitchen and gone on to lead normal lives.

My next house will have no kitchen …  just vending machines.

No husband has ever been shot while doing the dishes.

A husband is someone who takes out the trash and gives the impression he just cleaned the whole house.
Help keep the kitchen clean – eat out.

BACK TO  FUNNY QUOTES, FUNNY STUFF

Evolution of Policy – India

The British colonial government of India did not pursue an active policy of agricultural development despite modest efforts to formulate a policy (see The British Raj, 1858-1947, ch. 1). One such effort was the appointment in 1926 of the Royal Commission on Agriculture, which made some recommendations for improving agriculture and promoting the welfare of the rural population. Most of the commission’s recom-mendations were deferred because of the Great Depression of the 1930s. One outcome, however, was the establishment of the Imperial (later Indian) Council of Agricultural Research in 1929. During World War II, disruptions in international trade also led the government to initiate the Grow More Food Campaign. The government adopted its first agricultural policy statement in the wake of famine in Bengal in 1943. The policy objectives included increased production of food grains, use of better methods of production, improved marketing, better prices for the producers, fair wages for agricultural labor, fair distribution of food, increased production of raw materials, and improvements in research and education. This statement was the basis of many of the policies adopted soon after independence, especially in the First Five-Year Plan, when the central government was committed to giving priority to agricultural production to increase the food supply in the country.

The prolonged neglect of agriculture in India meant that there was almost no growth in the agricultural sector. From 1891 to 1946, output of all crops grew at 0.4 percent a year; the rate for food grains was only 0.1 percent per year. The land tenure system led to exploitative agrarian relations and stagnation (see Land Tenure, this ch.). Farmers had little incentive to invest, and despite great strides in foreign agricultural technology, Indian agricultural technology stagnated. Specifically, there were few improvements in seeds, agricultural implements, machines, or chemical fertilizers.

At the time of independence in 1947, agriculture and allied sectors provided well over 70 percent of the country’s employment and more than 50 percent of the gross national product. Agricultural development was a key to a number of national goals, such as reducing rural poverty, providing an adequate diet for all citizens, supplying agricultural raw materials for the textile industry and other industries, and expanding exports. In the mid-1960s, the goal of self-reliance was added to this list. The central government has played a progressively more important role on the agricultural front by providing overall leadership and coordination, as well as by providing a significant part of the financing for agricultural programs. However, the primary responsibility for the design and implementation of agricultural programs, in accordance with the constitution, remained with the states in the late twentieth century.

India’s agricultural growth strategy after independence evolved over three distinct phases. In the first phase, roughly covering the period through the Second Five-Year Plan, agricultural growth rested on removing basic socioeconomic constraints through land reform, change in the village power structure, reorganization of the rural poor into cooperatives, and better citizen participation in planning. The initial assumption was that changing the land tenure system by abolishing the zamindar system–a method of revenue collecting and landholding developed during the Mughal and British colonial periods–would stimulate agricultural output (see The Mughal Era; The British Empire in India, ch. 1).

The second phase occurred during the Third Five-Year Plan (FY 1961-65). The continuing shortages of food in the 1960s and the consequent crises convinced planners that raising agricultural output, especially food grains, was essential for political stability and independence from foreign food aid. Self-sufficiency in food-grain production and development of an adequate buffer stock through procurement became clearly defined goals in the mid-1960s. Keeping in mind the variety of socioeconomic and agroclimatic differences, the government adopted an area-specific approach, and emphasized programs such as the Intensive Area Agricultural Programme and the Intensive Agricultural District Programme.

The third phase in India’s economic development is identified predominantly as the Green Revolution. This phase relied on better seeds, more water via irrigation, and improved quantity and quality of fertilizer during the Fourth Five-Year Plan (FY 1969-73), the Fifth Five-Year Plan (FY 1974-78), and the Sixth Five-Year Plan (FY 1980-84). The Green Revolution was successful in meeting the goals of self-sufficiency in food-grain production and adequate buffer stocks by the end of the 1970s. Production was more than 100 million tons in 1978 and 1979. Imports were negligible, and the year-end buffer stocks from 1976-79 averaged more than 17 million tons. After 1980 buffer stocks fell below 10 millions tons only once, in 1988.

In the mid-1990s, the major goals of agricultural policy continued to be self-sufficiency in food staples and adequate food supplies at affordable prices for consumers. Expanding cereal production continued to be a major objective because of the population growth rate of almost 2 percent per year. The budgetary share of agriculture, together with irrigation and flood control projects, remained almost constant in the first six plans, varying between 21 percent and 24 percent.

The Eighth Five-Year Plan (FY 1992-96), as conceived in the early 1990s, not only aimed at continued self-sufficiency in food production, but also included plans to generate surpluses of some agricultural commodities for export. It also aimed at spreading the Green Revolution to more regions of the country with an emphasis on dryland farming.

Friendship poems QUOTES ON FRIENDSHIP     you will Love these too … Inspirational short stories

I Need You Now

My friend, I need you now-

Please take me by the hand.

Stand by me in my hour of need,

Take time to understand.

Take my hand, dear friend,

And lead me from this place.

Chase away my doubts and fears,

Wipe the tears from off my face.

Friend, I cannot stand alone.

I need your hand to hold,

The warmth of your gentle touch

In my world that’s grown so cold.

Please be a friend to me

And hold me day by day.

Because with your loving hand in mine,

I know we’ll find the way.

-By Becky Tucker

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I WILL BE THERE ( It’s sweet )
SEE THE BRIGHT SIDE
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Inspirational quotes
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THOUGHTS FOR LIFE

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IF I HAD MY LIFE…

BEST FRIEND POEMS
TEEN POETRY
FRIEND , FRIEND QUOTES

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