Social science primarily studies the social life of individuals and groups. Social science is made up of many different disciplines catering to specific subjects. Social scientists are well trained professionals that study and research all characteristics of society including group relationships, human behaviors, past events and accomplishments, decision making and change agents etc. It is their job to conduct extensive research and inform the public and organizations about different aspects of human life. They play a crucial role in suggesting solutions to governmental, personal, business, environmental and social problems. Social scientists thrive on research and analyses. They collect facts and create new theories. Their modus operandi includes making questionnaire, interviewing people from different demographic locations and experimenting. They also perform field investigations for more concrete findings.

Social science does not work in isolation. It is an umbrella branch under which there are different fields of study. This discipline offers career options like sociologists, social scientists, market researchers, urban planners, political scientists, geographers, anthropologists and archaeologists. A social scientist needs to specialize in a certain field and thereafter, conduct researches and make recommendations about how the resultant findings can be used to improve society through a variety of measures. It is a very interesting field that involves lots of analysis, research, data synthesis and fieldwork.

To become a social scientist, ideally one should have a master’s degree or Ph.D. in his/her field. Those looking to make a career in teaching and researching at a college or university require a Ph.D. as basic qualification. For entry level assistant jobs like management trainee, research assistant and teaching positions in elementary and middle schools, a bachelor’s degree suffices but it can’t take one too far in this field. Social scientists also study technical and mathematical fields like statistical software programs and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) etc. The knowledge of mathematical and quantitative research methods has become very vital in the field of social science. Field experience and internships play a crucial role in the careers of social scientists. One can find internships at nonprofit organizations, local museums, government agencies and volunteer research agencies.

A social scientist can also obtain required license and certification from accredited bodies. For instance, those willing to make career in geography science, can opt for voluntary certification programs offered by the GIS Certification Institute (GISCI). To make it big in this field, one needs to have excellent written and oral communication skills, ability to think logically and methodically and systematic attention to detail. Data is perhaps the most useful thing for a scientist so he should be able to collect and organize research data properly. The demand for social scientists is not going to slow down in near future. Need for research works in different fields, urban planners and geographers etc will drive the job opportunities for qualified and experienced social scientists.

In India, some of the institutes offering courses in social science are:-
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Calcutta University
Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
University of Delhi, Delhi
Karve Institute of Social Science, Poona University, Pune
Palli Sangthan Vibhag (Rural Reconstructions College), Vishwa Bharati University, Shantiniketan
Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi
Institute of Social Sciences, Agra

Civil engineers play a major role in our society. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines. Civil engineers perform a wide variety of role. Right from planning, designing and supervising the construction of facilities essential to modern life to maintaining the final product, civil engineers do it all. They are also involved in estimating costs for labors and materials. Civil engineers are responsible for handling infrastructure projects in buildings, roads, airports, tunnels, damns, water supply system, highways, offshore structures, bridges, transit systems, wastewater treatment plants and harbors etc. It is his job to construct the project to the required scale. Civil engineers are highly knowledgeable. They have good administrative skills as well.

Civil engineers have the choice of specializing in particular areas like work for government bodies or transportations. The demand for civil engineers can never subside because of increasing population and need for creating roads, bridges and buildings. Most of the infrastructural projects cannot be maintained or repaired without the expert guidance of these engineers. Civil engineers play a vital role in our lives.

As far as courses for civil engineering are concerned, they are certainly very popular within the field of engineering. One must have a bachelor degree in engineering to get into entry-level engineering jobs. The course curriculum for a typical engineering program covers subjects like, mechanics, hydraulic engineering, construction engineering, surveying engineering, civil engineering system, transportation engineering, construction planning and scheduling, fluid mechanics and constructional materials.

Civil engineers need to obtain license by completing a degree program approved by Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET), four years of work experience as an engineer and successful completion of a state licensing examination. Those who wish to make further advancements in this field can go for additional certifications like water resources management, structural design, construction engineering and management and transportation etc.

If you want to pursue civil engineer course in India then, you need to prepare for BE/B.Tech in Civil Engineering. The basic eligibility is 10+2 or equivalent examination, with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. The course duration is of 4 years and selection is made on the basis of marks secured in 10+2 exam and marks secured in Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) conducted by IITs or All India Engineering Entrance Exam (AIEEE) or other state and national level exams. After BE/B.Tech, one can further his studies to M.E or M.Tech or Ph.D. in civil engineering.
Several prestigious institutes in India offer courses in civil engineering.

Some of the major ones are;
IITs at Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Mumbai, Bangalore and Roorkee,
Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad,
Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia,
Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi,
Lingaya’s Institute of Management & Technology, Faridabad,
Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior,
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,
Anna University, Chennai,
Birla Institute of Technology, Pilani and
IEC College of Engg. and Technology, Greater NOIDA.
Apart from these reputed institutions, plenty of regional engineering colleges also offer Civil Engineering courses.

Business development managers are in charge of developing the business side of the company. It is the job of business development managers to identify and deal with all the business opportunities available to the organization. Business development managers (BDM) play a vital role in the success of a company. They help organizations to grow. BDM has adequate knowledge of the sales and marketing aspect of the business. A BDM is well versed with different sides of the business but he specializes in thorough assessment of the current marketing conditions and the ways to maximize the profit of the company. He is consistently identifying the target markets and devising new strategies to capture the maximum market share. A BDM is a very crucial cog in the marketing wheel of the firm. 

A business development manager performs several tasks. Sometimes, he acts as a market researcher and some other times; he performs the job of a market strategist. For example, he gathers important data about competition in each market along with tastes and trends of the customers. Based on the findings, he can devise useful strategies to get the maximum out of a product launch. Business development managers oversee all the activity in the market and make sure that target sales figures meet the established business models. It is the job of development managers to attract new customers and retain the old ones through tempting business proposals. 

The role of business development managers is full of responsibilities. He needs to be aware of overall business trends, prepare detailed business plans with attainable goals and objectives, coordinating with other professionals/departments of the firm and making presentations to the prospective clients. A good BDM possesses effective communication and interpersonal skills along with good business knowledge. Negotiations are an integral part of the job profile of business manager so he needs to be good at negotiations as well. It is a highly stressful job because of all the deadlines and targets so BDM needs to be patient and he must have ability to stay calm under pressure. His problem solving skills can work wonders in this field. 

As far as qualifications for a business development manager are concerned, there are no standard criteria. It depends upon the particular company and its recruitment policies. However, it helps to have a MBA degree with marketing specialization. He must have studied business management and economics. Though, a bachelor’s degree is enough to get a job at entry-level in this field. Those with experience are always given preference over fresher. 

Business development managers manage to earn a healthy salary. The pay scale depends upon nature of the business and experience of the individuals. A business development manager can find suitable employment opportunities in many fields including consulting, telecom, pharmaceutical, retail, real estate, software and infrastructure companies. Experienced business development managers will always have several lucrative job opportunities. Demand for BDMs is expected to remain high considering emergence of new businesses. Career in business development management is quite exciting and rewarding.

Copywriting refers to writing content to promote people, businesses, ideas, and opinions. Copywriters use words to convey a specific message. They are trained professionals that have acquired expertise in preparing a variety of content for advertising purposes. Copywriters usually work for publications and broadcasting firms. They create awareness about diverse range of products and services with fascinating words.

They are good at creating web content, sales letters, audio and visual advertisements, billboards, slogans, scripts for radio and television commercials, jingles, tag lines and promotional brochures. Copywriters use informative and persuasive text on websites and in advertising campaigns and marketing materials.

The nature of a copywriter’s work is such that, he/she is supposed to work closely with clients to create the desired theme or slogans. They use texts to bring concepts to life which is so very essential in creating a successful marketing campaign. Copywriters have to work in close sync with client servicing personnel and artistic directors.

He has to take into consideration exact needs and requirements of the clients and create exact copy. It is their constant endeavor to persuade readers, viewers, and listeners to buy a specific product or service.

Copywriters are an essential part of advertising agencies, public relations firms, newspapers, web development companies, magazines and publication houses. Copywriters don’t just create fascinating copies. They also write general interest stories for newspapers and press releases for companies.

The role of a copywriter further extends to coming up with ideas for textual content, coordinating with clients, researching, writing copy and proof reading. If you have a passion for words and want to make a career in copywriting, you will need to complete your bachelor’s in English, journalism, or other related field. However, if you have a postgraduate degree then your chances of getting a good job become much higher.

In this field, one needs to be sufficiently experienced. Most of the employers look for professionals with relevant experience and impressive portfolio. One can join any of the several short-term copywriting certificate courses by different institutes. Many educational institutions also offer placement services to the copywriters. To gain practical experience, many aspiring copywriters complete internships or obtain part-time jobs with school and local newspapers and other publications. Additionally, majority of the employers provide on the job training to the new recruits so that they get familiar with the work supposed to be handled by them.

The best way to learn is by shadowing experienced writers and completing simple tasks. As copywriters gain experience, they can move to more advanced tasks. This job is as much about requisite education and experience as it is about networking skill. The job of a copywriter can be quite hectic. This job can be financially very rewarding once the candidates have relevant experience. However, one needs to adjust during the initial period because of low packages and huge competition.

Educational institutes in India offering courses in copywriting are:-
Institute of Copywriting,
Pranah Institute of Advertising Copywriting (New Delhi)
Atlantis IMC (Mumbai). There are several other institutes that offer courses in copywriting.

One of the most growing and evolving industry is of Alternative medicine. It is a large field which includes several specialties like Chinese medicine, herbal medicine, homeopathic medicine, yoga, ayurvedic medicine, hypnosis, crystal healing and acupuncture among others. Specialists of this field use natural healing methods to help alleviate pain, reduce stress and increase energy. Here, we will talk about acupuncture which basically deals with insertion of one or more needles into the body with therapeutic intent. It is an ancient practice and has a history spanning well over 2000 years. The ancient China is said to be the birth place of this form of treatment.

An acupuncturist can be defined as an alternative health practitioner who uses needles to inserts at specific points in the human body to treat and prevent illness or diseases. It is a very effective segment of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It helps in balancing the flow of energies around patients’ bodies and through their various internal systems. This form of alternative medicine is based on the principle of the life force, Qi that flows around meridians and pathways. By inserting needles at key points, one can redirect, flush, diminish and increase the flow of Qi. Acupuncturists believe that, this form of science helps body in curing itself of diseases. Its existence since the ancient times tells us a lot about effectiveness of acupuncture.

Though, Acupuncture is more of an oriental phenomenon but it has found increasing popularity in the western world. Acupuncture is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Institute of Health (NIH) & food and Drug Administration (FDA) in USA and National Health Service (NHS) in UK. One can take NHS funded courses in acupuncture to treat pain and inflammation in their patients in UK. To become an acupuncturist, one must complete a course recognized by the British Acupuncture Accreditation Board. The course duration is of two to three years full time. One must have two A-levels and five GCSEs to qualify for the course. The course curriculum has subjects like, Principles of Qi, business and administration, diagnostic techniques, anatomy and physiology, disease conditions and treatment methods.

One can apply for voluntary membership of the Health Professions Council (HPC) in UK. Physiotherapists or GPs can also pursue this path however, norms for them differ.

In United States, number of acupuncture schools has continued to grow since the creation of the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (ACAOM) and the Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (CCAOM) in 1982. Approximately, 50 colleges offer high-quality education in acupuncture and Oriental medicine.

In India, one needs to study alternative medicine which is of two years duration and require the candidate to have passed class XII. One can also go for a Post Graduate degree Course or several diploma/certificate courses in acupuncture. Some of the major institutes offering certificate and diploma courses in acupuncture are:-
Indian Academy of Acupuncture Science, Aurangabad
Complementary Medical Academy, Chennai
Body Mind Clinic & Research Center (BMCRC), Dept Of Holistic Medicine, Vatsala Hospital, Lucknow

Film editors are an integral part of film making process. They edit video and films for different mediums including television industry, cable broadcasts and motion pictures. The process of film editing is a very critical one in the final success of the movies. Editing can make or mar the way a film finally appears on the screen. It is the job of film editors to choose and combine different scenes and shots and create right sequence. It is also referred to as an ‘invisible art’ because not every moviegoer is aware of the important role performed by the film editor.

Film editor is responsible for several aspects of the movie like story, audience focus, rhythm, emotion and two and three dimensional plane of the screen. They help in creating the final product by arranging and mixing story, dialogues, sound, music and special effects in the right order. It is a highly specialized job that demands attention to the details. They can also decide what scenes are irrelevant to the film and can chop it off. Film editors perform their roles with the help of digital and technical equipments and a variety of computer machinery.
Editors have to work closely with the director of the film.

Their role becomes even more crucial during the post-production phase. Talking about educational qualifications for film editors, they typically have a bachelor degree in art. Many film editors also go for a major in film studies, film and television or communication. Editors have various choices when it comes to attending a film editing course. They can join independent film schools, reputed universities, community colleges or art schools.

The course curriculum usually covers subjects like film-making equipment, film-making process, traditional editing methods, cutting and splicing and computer editing programs etc. Editors also go through internship programs where they get the best opportunities to learn specific skills from a professional editor or team of editors.

In India, several courses for film editing are available to the students dreaming of building a career in film editing. These courses are offered at all levels, i.e., certificate level, diploma level or postgraduate diploma level. Students learn all the subjects of film editing like non-linear editing, professional editing etc.

The eligibility criterion for the UG courses is passing of 10+2 level and for postgraduate diploma courses; student must be a graduate in relevant stream. Because of the astonishingly high number of films being made in India in diverse languages, demand for skilled film editors is always there. India is one of the largest film making countries in the world. One can make a career as a film editor in television programs, feature and non-feature films, advertisements and documentary.

Several reputed institutes in India offer courses in the field of film editing.
Some of the prominent ones are;
Film and Television Institute of India (Pune),
Digital Academy (Mumbai)
Flash Frame Visuals Academy of Film and Video Editing (Bangalore) and
Center for Research in Art of Film and Television (Delhi).

HR manager

The job of a Human Resources Manager is very crucial in the organizational scheme of the things. They perform a wide range of duties including recruitment, development, and welfare of company personnel. It is the job of a HR manager to see employees are recruited and managed effectively. We all know how important employees are to the success of an organization. Quality of the workforce differentiates a good company from the great. Employees contribute to the overall efficiency and smooth running of the company. HR managers are trained to oversee all the aspects of the workforce. Right from implementing and maintaining ethical and moral organizational policies and practices to taking care of employee pay, training, and development, HR manager does it all. They act as a link between management and employees. The role of HR managers is very important in smooth functioning of the firm.

As mentioned earlier, a HR manager performs wide range of functions. However, his responsibilities vary in accordance with the size and nature of the company. What that means is, if the firm is big then HR manager focuses on limited areas of responsibilities but if the company is small, he tends to take care of all the aspects of the job. His job profile includes but not limited to, recruiting employees through interviews and selections, managing staffing needs, advertising jobs in newspapers, magazines, and on the web, planning and organizing training programs and staff development, watching over the company’s future personnel needs and dealing with all issues relating to pay and personnel benefits. He is also expected to develop appropriate human resource policies and procedures, enforcing disciplinary measures and monitoring and ensuring staff welfare.

Those willing to make a career as a human resource manager need to fulfill certain educational qualifications. Candidates must have a good standard of education like GCSES and A Levels. Furthermore, they can go for the Certificate in HR Administration or the Certificate in Personnel Practice from the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Other qualifications include business management with HR/personnel specialization. Study of psychology, social sciences organizational structure, labor law etc proves vital in final selection of HR managers. For top level managerial positions in HR department, it is important to get a master’s degree in human resources, business management or labor relations.

The duties handled by entry-level workers vary. Keeping in mind the academic qualification and experience of the employee, organizations assign different roles to different employees. Some of the basic roles performed by entry level HR personnel are compiling employee handbooks, performing administrative duties, entering data into computer systems, and researching information for a supervisor. Usually, entry-level workers learn all about their job with the help of on-the-job training programs. As they gain experience, they can advance to supervisory positions.

HR managers can find great employment opportunities in private sector companies, local authorities, corporate and charities. This field offers plenty of opportunities for career progression and professional development. Being an important part of any organization, demand for HR managers is always going to remain high.

Market research can be defined as discipline of gathering of important information related to needs, desires and opinions of the consumers. Marketing research is a detailed and thorough process that uses variety of data compilation methods. These data are very crucial for organizations in deciding what types of products and services they should be launching in certain demography. With the help of qualitative and quantitative data, management can focus on packaging and advertising demands needed to capture the market. Market research department determines the fortune of the company in a hugely competitive market. Professionals performing the job of marketing research are known as market researcher or market research analyst. There are numerous opportunities in marketing research field. It is one of the fastest growing occupational categories today.

One needs to get a bachelor’s degree in marketing or business administration for entry-level market research positions such as market or survey researcher. The candidate must complete the coursework in different subjects like statistics, economics, marketing, psychology and social sciences. Those who wish to advance further in this field should opt for master’s or doctorate degree. Having advanced degrees may help one in reaching managerial or academic positions. A market researcher will do his credentials a world of good with Professional Researcher Certification (PRC) offered by the Marketing Research Association (MRA).

To become a market researcher in UK, one needs to hold a degree or a higher national diploma. Though, there is specific qualification required to enter this field. He/she must have good knowledge of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Students having done degree courses in subjects such as, economics, mathematics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology will hold the aces. Many market research agencies offer on the job training and specialized courses to the newly recruits. Additionally, one has the choice of joining any of the short term courses offered to the market research professionals by the Market Research Society and Chartered Institute of Marketing.

Market researchers can work for large market research agencies, government organizations, advertising agencies, PR agencies, charities, and companies in different industries like pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, and retail.

Many institutions are conducting courses in marketing research in India. Most of these courses are in the field of management. Courses are offered at the undergraduate (BBA) and postgraduate level (MBA). Besides, few institutes are also imparting knowledge in marketing research through specialized courses such as Master of Marketing Research (MMR). To get into BBA, one needs to clear 10+2 examination in any stream, from any recognized Board whereas for MBA course in market research, the minimum qualification is graduation.

Institutes are:-

IIMs (Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore),

Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies,

S. P Jain Institute of Management & Research

IMT, Ghaziabad,

Management Development Institute (Gurgaon)

Once the course is completed, candidates can find suitable job opportunities in marketing research departments of business organizations. The job profile could be of operational supervisor, project manager, junior analyst, market research analyst, statistician/data processing specialist, research director, field work director and in future head of marketing research department etc.

Environmental health officers are also referred as EHOs. The main role of EHO pertains to development, implementation and enforcement of health policies. Environmental health officers work in different industries. They can be found in housing, safety, health and food safety departments of government as well as private organizations. The role of an EHO is very crucial in our society. They ensure the strict adherence to the health and safety policies by visiting business premises and sites. They provide suggestion and guidance to different individuals, organizations and companies on diverse aspects of health and safety. EOHs perform a variety of roles however; their roles vary according to their locations, specializations and designations.

Environmental health officers routinely perform health and safety inspection at different business premises. They issue health and safety advice to new buildings coming up in their vicinity. These officers keep a tab on whether premises are complying with health and safety guidelines as presented by the concerned authorities. They also have to investigate workplace accidents and submit the report to the higher authorities. It is the duty of environmental health officers to observe radiation and pollution levels. Some of the other major roles performed by EOHs include arranging license for animal related business shops, directing the process of removing abandoned vehicles and refuges and regularly visiting the private and rented accommodation and submit their reports.

To become an environmental health officer, one must complete at least a bachelor’s degree in environmental health. However, an MSc degree in environmental health and safety is recommended. If we talk about Britain then, one must complete his/her course that is accredited by Chartered Institute of Environmental Health in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Courses are available in both full and part time mode. Many institutes are also offering courses in environmental health through online medium. These courses are relatively inexpensive and becoming quite popular amongst career aspirants. To gain valuable practical experience, one can work as an environmental health technician for a local council. This way, students can pursue a part-time course in the subject along with earning practical experience.

Local authorities, companies, governmental departments and other agencies offer on the job training to the recruits. In order to secure a job at a reputed organization, one must complete 48 weeks of practical training in this field along with his education. Once the candidates have finished the training, they are required to clear written exams, interview and an audit. The successful candidates are awarded with a Certificate of Registration by the Environmental Health Registration Board. Now they are professional environmental health officers and eligible to join the job of their choice.

The job of an environmental health officer is pivotal. It is an office based job but also involves making visits to business premises. Most of the EOHs are employed by local authorities, health agencies, environmental agencies and food agencies etc.

There are plenty of reputed institutions in India that offer different courses in environmental health at certificate and degree levels. PhD courses in environmental health, environmental science, and environmental studies are also offered by some educational institutions.

Brand Manager plays a crucial role in success of an organization. He not only develops and implements appropriate marketing strategies but also manages them to raise the public profile of a particular branded product or company. A brand manager performs various roles and responsibilities. He plays a pivotal role in the organizational scheme of the things. Using different research mediums such as product, customer and market research, he/she analyses the market and creates detailed and precise reports to demonstrate current trends, predictions and relevant strategies. A brand manager is responsible for creating changes in product design as per the understanding of the target market.

A brand manager keeps a tab on all the marketing activities whether physical or online. It is his duty to create annual budgeting plans and reports for different brands of the company. He devises comprehensive marketing strategies in association with advertising department and sales personnel. The job of a brand manager is a highly demanding one. He needs to be on his toes almost all the time. A brand manager is required to have several skills. For instance, he must be able to multi-task. He always has to look over different aspects like content, design and marketing of a product. So a multitasking ability will definitely come very handy. A brand manager must be analytical and should be able to work within tight deadlines. Additionally, skills like interpersonal skills, communication skills and creative abilities etc are very important in this profile.

As far as education and training for brand managers is concerned, most of them have University degree level or above in subjects like marketing, brand management, advertising, public relations, international business and business management. There is huge demand for experienced brand managers in multinational companies. Though, it can take years of experience before one becomes eligible for the role of a brand manager in a large corporation. This is a high paying job and good candidates always command best of packages.

To become a brand manager, one must complete his/her MBA with marketing or branding specialization from a premier institute. The eligibility criterion for entering into a MBA program includes a bachelor’s degree in any stream from a recognized university. One also needs to appear for management entrance examinations like CAT (Common Admission Tests) or MAT (Management Admission Tests) etc for pursuing MBA courses in India (Master of Business Administration). The written examination is followed by Group Discussion and Personal Interview (GD & PI) rounds.

Some of the premier institutes in India offering courses in brand management are;

Indian Institute of Management (IIMs), Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Lucknow, Indore

SP Jain Institute of Management and Research, Mumbai

Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata

Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, Pune

MP Birla Institute of Management, Bangalore

Some of the subjects covered in a brand management course are, principles of brand management, market research, brand promotion, brand launch and USP, advertising and marketing, consumer demand and distribution, packaging and marketing of a brand etc. Qualified professionals can find suitable branding jobs in different industries like pharmaceutical, insurance, FMCG, consumer durables, mobile telephones and retail industry etc.